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Increasing physical activity among young children from disadvantaged communities : study protocol of a group randomised controlled effectiveness trial

Stanley, Rebecca M and Jones, Rachel A and Cliff, Dylan P. and Trost, Stewart G and Berthelsen, Donna and Salmon, Jo and Batterham, Marijka and Eckermann, Simon and Reilly, John J and Brown, Ngiare and Mickle, Karen J and Howard, Steven J and Hinkley, Trina and Janssen, Xanne and Chandler, Paul and Cross, Penny and Gowers, Fay and Okely, Anthony D (2016) Increasing physical activity among young children from disadvantaged communities : study protocol of a group randomised controlled effectiveness trial. BMC Public Health. pp. 1-13. ISSN 1471-2458

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Abstract

Background: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority. Methods: Jump Start is a multi-component, multi-setting PA and gross motor skill intervention for young children aged 3–5 years in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. The intervention will be evaluated using a two-arm, parallel group, randomised cluster trial. The Jump Start protocol was based on Social Cognitive Theory and includes five components: a structured gross motor skill lesson (Jump In); unstructured outdoor PA and gross motor skill time (Jump Out); energy breaks (Jump Up); activities connecting movement to learning experiences (Jump Through); and a home-based family component to promote PA and gross motor skill (Jump Home). Early childhood education and care centres will be demographically matched and randomised to Jump Start (intervention) or usual practice (comparison) group. The intervention group receive Jump Start professional development, program resources, monthly newsletters and ongoing intervention support. Outcomes include change in total PA (accelerometers) within centre hours, gross motor skill development (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), weight status (body mass index), bone strength (Sunlight MiniOmni Ultrasound Bone Sonometer), self-regulation (Heads-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, executive function tasks, and proxy-report Temperament and Approaches to learning scales), and educator and parent self-efficacy. Extensive quantitative and qualitative process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion: The Jump Start intervention is a unique program to address low levels of PA and gross motor skill proficiency, and support healthy lifestyle behaviours among young children in disadvantaged communities. If shown to be efficacious, the Jump Start approach can be expected to have implications for early childhood education and care policies and practices, and ultimately a positive effect on the health and development across the life course.