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Structure and properties of carbon steel to duplex stainless steel submerged arc welds

McPherson, N.A. and Chi, K. and McLean, M.S. and Baker, T.N. (2003) Structure and properties of carbon steel to duplex stainless steel submerged arc welds. Materials Science and Technology, 19 (2). pp. 219-226. ISSN 0267-0836

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Submerged arc welding (SAW) of stainless steel to carbon steel plate can produce a number of quality problems. Lack of control of the consumable wire position within the weld preparation can lead to uneven dilution from the parent plates. In addition a relatively heavy but equal dilution from both parent plates will also create problems. In the situation of SAW of duplex stainless steel to carbon steel with a Y weld preparation, which had a 4 mm nose on it, an undesirable situation was created, in which hard zones in the weld metal were observed. In addition, it was found that a bias of the electrode wire to the carbon steel side of the weld preparation created a situation where excessively high hardness measurements occurred (> 600 HV10). Those specific regions were found to contain martensite, which was positively identified using selected area electron diffraction in a TEM investigation on thin foils taken from the high hardness region. A V weld preparation with central positioning of the consumable resulted in acceptable hardness levels in the root region combined with a skeletal ferrite microstructure. This allowed the dilution in the root area to be reduced, whilst achieving a balanced parent plate dilution in the remainder of the weld from the SAW process.