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In smooth muscle, FK506-binding protein modulates IP3 receptor-evoked Ca2+ release by mTOR and calcineurin

MacMillan, D. and Currie, S. and Bradley, K.N. and Muir, T.C. and McCarron, J.G. (2005) In smooth muscle, FK506-binding protein modulates IP3 receptor-evoked Ca2+ release by mTOR and calcineurin. Journal of Cell Science, 118 (23). pp. 5443-5451. ISSN 0021-9533

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Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by the IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) crucially regulates diverse cell signalling processes from reproduction to apoptosis. Release from the IP3R may be modulated by endogenous proteins associated with the receptor, such as the 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), either directly or indirectly by inhibition of the phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we report that, in addition to calcineurin, FKPBs modulate release through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that potentiates Ca2+ release from the IP3R in smooth muscle. The presence of FKBP12 was confirmed in colonic myocytes and co-immunoprecipitated with the IP3R. In aortic smooth muscle, however, although present, FKBP12 did not co-immunoprecipitate with IP3R. In voltage-clamped single colonic myocytes rapamycin, which together with FKBP12 inhibits mTOR (but not calcineurin), decreased the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) evoked by IP3R activation (by photolysis of caged IP3), without decreasing the SR luminal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]l) as did the mTOR inhibitors RAD001 and LY294002. However, FK506, which with FKBP12 inhibits calcineurin (but not mTOR), potentiated the IP3-evoked [Ca2+]c increase. This potentiation was due to the inhibition of calcineurin; it was mimicked by the phosphatase inhibitors cypermethrin and okadaic acid. The latter two inhibitors also prevented the FK506-evoked increase as did a calcineurin inhibitory peptide (CiP). In aortic smooth muscle, where FKBP12 was not associated with IP3R, the IP3-mediated Ca2+ release was unaffected by FK506 or rapamycin. Together, these results suggest that FKBP12 has little direct effect on IP3-mediated Ca2+ release, even though it is associated with IP3R in colonic myocytes. However, FKBP12 might indirectly modulate Ca2+ release through two effector proteins: (1) mTOR, which potentiates and (2) calcineurin, which inhibits Ca2+ release from IP3R in smooth muscle.