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World class computing and information science research at Strathclyde...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Department of Computer & Information Sciences involved in mathematically structured programming, similarity and metric search, computer security, software systems, combinatronics and digital health.

The Department also includes the iSchool Research Group, which performs leading research into socio-technical phenomena and topics such as information retrieval and information seeking behaviour.


Oral delivery of tetanus toxoid using vesicles containing bile salts (bilosomes) induces significant systemic and mucosal immunity

Alexander, J. and Mann, J.F.S. and Scales, H.E. and Shakir, E. and Carter, K.C. and Mullen, A. and Ferro, V.A. (2006) Oral delivery of tetanus toxoid using vesicles containing bile salts (bilosomes) induces significant systemic and mucosal immunity. Methods, 38 (2). pp. 90-95. ISSN 1046-2023

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Protein antigens administered via the oral route are exposed to a hostile environment in the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of digestive enzymes and a range of pH (1-7.5). Using a delivery system can afford protection to entrapped components against degradation and permit delivery of antigen to the cells responsible for generating local and systemic immune responses. In this comparative study, mice were immunised orally with tetanus toxoid (40 or 200 μg dose/mouse, four doses in total) entrapped in non-ionic surfactant vesicles formulated with bile salts (bilosomes). The higher entrapped dose (BV-TT, 200 μg) induced IgG1 by study week 3 to similar levels to those observed with subcutaneous un-entrapped TT at the lower (<50 μg) dose. However, both bilosome formulations (BV-TT, low, and high doses), though not un-entrapped TT, caused a rise in the numbers of IgA positive plasma cells observed in the small intestine, primarily in the first 15 cm of the small intestine.