Picture of virus under microscope

Research under the microscope...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs.

Strathprints serves world leading Open Access research by the University of Strathclyde, including research by the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), where research centres such as the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC), the Cancer Research UK Formulation Unit, SeaBioTech and the Centre for Biophotonics are based.

Explore SIPBS research

Tensile properties of the in vivo human gastroenemius tendon

Maganaris, C.N. and Paul, J.P. (2002) Tensile properties of the in vivo human gastroenemius tendon. Journal of Biomechanics, 35 (12). pp. 1639-1646. ISSN 0021-9290

Full text not available in this repository. (Request a copy from the Strathclyde author)


In the present experiment we obtained the tensile properties of the human gastrocnemius tendon, a high-stressed tendon suitable for spring-like action during locomotion. Measurements were taken in vivo in six men. The gastrocnemius tendon elongation during tendon loading−unloading induced by muscle contraction−relaxation was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Tendon forces were calculated from the moment generated during isometric plantarflexion contraction, using tendon moment arm length data obtained in vivo with the tendon travel method. Tendon stiffness data were calculated from the slope of the tendon force−elongation curve, and were then normalized to the tendon's original dimensions, obtained from morphometric analysis of sonographs, to estimate the tendon Young's modulus. Mechanical hysteresis values were obtained from area calculations by numerical integration. The elongation of the tendon increased curvilinearly with the force acting upon it, from 1.7±1 mm (0.8±0.3% strain) at 87.5±8.5 N to 11.1±3.1 mm (4.9±1% strain) at 875±85 N. The tendon Young's modulus and mechanical hysteresis were 1.16±0.15 GPa and 18±3%, respectively. These values fall within the range of values obtained from in vitro experiments and are very similar to the respective values recently obtained from in vivo measurements in the less highly stressed human tibialis anterior tendon (1.2 GPa and 19%), thus indicating that the material properties of tendon are independent of physiological loading and function. Combining the present tendon force−elongation data with previously reported Achilles tendon force data recorded during walking indicates that the gastrocnemius tendon would provide not, vert, similar6% of the total external work produced by the locomotor system. This estimate illustrates the contribution of passive elastic mechanisms on the economy and efficiency of walking. The contributions would be greater in more active exercise such as running.