Murphy, Gavin Bruce (2012) Inverse Dynamics based Energy Assessment and Simulation : IDEAS. PhD thesis, Mechanical And Aerospace Engineering.
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The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) is the UK Government’s approved methodology for assessing the energy ratings of dwellings. SAP is a calculation method based upon empirical relations from measured data. A yearly calculation was used in SAP until the release of SAP 2009, which employs monthly calculations. SAP has moved from using a large time step with a coarse time resolution to a smaller time step with a medium time resolution. Rising CO2 emissions from dwellings advocate that properties designed in a sustainable method will become commonplace in the future. In tandem with enhanced sustainability, dwellings will increasingly be designed with implementations of renewable energy generation. The modelling of renewables in SAP has been highlighted as an area where SAP could benefit from additional research. Modelling future complex dwellings and systems will require an advanced calculation method which is capable of more detailed modelling and simulation; with a smaller time step which is measured in minutes and not months, producing results allowing more detailed analysis of energy performance. Dynamic Simulation Methods (DSMs) already exist which can operate at a very small time step. However with DSMs it is very difficult to make a comparison with SAP as the temperatures used in SAP are not well understood. To calculate energy consumption the SAP methodology guarantees that a standard occupancy temperature profile is met perfectly. A dynamic method which also guarantees the SAP standard occupancy temperature profile is required. This is difficult in complex DSMs as their control algorithms are often inadequate to optimise the heating system to guarantee that a temperature is met perfectly. The contribution to knowledge detailed in this thesis is the development of a novel SAP compliant advanced dynamic calculation method (IDEAS) which guarantees that the SAP standard occupancy temperature profile is perfectly tracked and is also calibrated with SAP. The Inverse Dynamics based Energy Assessment and Simulation (IDEAS) method employs the perfect inverse control law RIDE to guarantee that the SAP standard occupancy temperature profile is met. IDEAS produces SAP compliant results and allows confident (i.e. calibrated in SAP) predictions to be made regarding the impact of novel heating and renewable energy systems. Researched in depth are the temperatures used in SAP, leading to analysis of the implications of tracking air temperature and various comfort temperatures. A focused evaluation of the treatment of renewables in SAP and DSMs is also presented, leading to suggestions which were implemented into the SAP framework. The role of real life monitoring in the energy assessment process is highlighted with monitored studies conducted. Also in this thesis case studies applying IDEAS to buildings with renewable heating systems are described. The IDEAS method employs SAP as an exemplar steady state calculation to highlight the successful use and calibration of a new advanced Inverse Dynamics based symbolic method. The philosophy, research and equations derived in IDEAS are presented in this thesis demonstrating their use in Microsoft Excel and Matlab / Simulink environments. The IDEAS methodology is transparent and portable. IDEAS can be applied to other methodologies, such as those employed by PHPP and SBEM (by carrying out a calibration process), and also to different simulation environments such as ESP-r and ESL (by adopting the IDEAS equations in those methods). The contribution to knowledge of IDEAS is demonstrated in this thesis by the development of the method and the use of SAP as a comparator. The IDEAS method has many uses outwith SAP which are highlighted in the cases studies and future work sections of this body of work.
|Item type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Keywords:||energy consumption, building energy simulation, modelling and assessment, inverse dynamics, renewable heating systems, standard assessment procedure, dynamic simulation, Mechanical engineering and machinery, Building construction, Engineering design|
|Subjects:||Technology > Mechanical engineering and machinery|
Technology > Building construction
Technology > Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > Engineering design
|Department:||Faculty of Engineering > Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering|
|Depositing user:||Pure Administrator|
|Date Deposited:||10 May 2012 14:10|
|Last modified:||28 Jul 2012 22:35|
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