Picture of athlete cycling

Open Access research with a real impact on health...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Physical Activity for Health Group based within the School of Psychological Sciences & Health. Research here seeks to better understand how and why physical activity improves health, gain a better understanding of the amount, intensity, and type of physical activity needed for health benefits, and evaluate the effect of interventions to promote physical activity.

Explore open research content by Physical Activity for Health...

Should acid ammonium oxalate replace hydroxylammonium chloride in step 2 of the revised BCR sequential extraction protocol for soil and sediment?

Davidson, C.M. and Hursthouse, A.S. and Tognarelli, D.M. and Ure, A.M. and Urquhart, G.J. (2004) Should acid ammonium oxalate replace hydroxylammonium chloride in step 2 of the revised BCR sequential extraction protocol for soil and sediment? Analytica Chimica Acta, 508 (2). pp. 193-199. ISSN 0003-2670

[img] Microsoft Word (strathprints000376.doc)
strathprints000376.doc

Download (460kB)

Abstract

The revised, four-step BCR sequential extraction for soil or sediment has been compared with an alternative procedure in which 0.2 mol 1(-1) ammonium oxalate (pH 3) replaced 0.5 mol 1(-1) hydroxylammonium chloride (pH 1.5) in step 2, the reducible step. A variety of substrates were studied: BCR CRM601, a sewage sludge amended soil, two industrial soils, and a steel manufacturing by-product (basic oxygen furnace filter cake). Greater amounts of iron were recovered in step 2 when acid ammonium oxalate was used, for all substrates. Similar trends were observed for copper. Manganese and zinc were not strongly affected by the procedural modification, except for zinc in the two industrial soils, where oxalate extraction proved more efficient than use of hydroxylammonium chloride. A large proportion of the calcium and lead isolated in step 2 of the BCR procedure was not released until step 3 when the alternative procedure with oxalate in step 2 was used. This is probably due to rapid precipitation of analyte oxalates from solution. Thus, whilst oxalate offers superior dissolution of iron-containing matrix components, it should not be used if calcium or lead concentrations are to be measured. Selection of the most appropriated sequential extraction protocol for use in a particular study must always be carried out on the basis of 'fitness for purpose' criteria. However, the revised BCR protocol, involving use of 0.5 mol 1(-1) (NH2OHHCI)-H-. in the reducible step, appears to be more generally applicable than procedures involving acid ammonium oxalate. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.