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The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including those from the School of Psychological Sciences & Health - but also papers by researchers based within the Faculties of Science, Engineering, Humanities & Social Sciences, and from the Strathclyde Business School.

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Maintaining the cold chain shipping environment for Phase I clinical trial distribution

Elliott, M A and Halbert, G W (2005) Maintaining the cold chain shipping environment for Phase I clinical trial distribution. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 299 (1-2). pp. 49-54. ISSN 0378-5173

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Abstract

The study aimed to demonstrate satisfactory inter-UK transit of cold storage clinical trial material. The product environment had to be maintained between 0 and 8 degrees C throughout transit until delivery. Straightforward, low cost and simplified shipping arrangements were sought that would be appropriate for small-scale Phase I clinical trial activities. A laboratory test defined an optimal three frozen gel pack configuration to maintain refrigerated environmental conditions for dummy product packs in a single type and size of insulated shipper. The internal environment was temperature monitored at 30-min intervals in all tests. Twelve Glasgow to London transits were then studied over 2 years to include all seasonal temperature variations. A configuration using three frozen gel packs and 4 h pre-chill of the transit container maintained the internal environment at 0-8 degrees C for up to 48 h during autumn, winter and spring. A modified four frozen gel pack configuration was suitable for summer transit. Thus cold shipment verification was successfully carried out for a small-scale distribution operation. It was proven that refrigerated shipping conditions could be maintained using a straightforward and cost effective 'passive' type system consisting of frozen gel packs and insulated transit containers. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.