High-speed imaging receiver design for 6G optical wireless communications : a rate-FOV trade-off

Soltani, Mohammad Dehghani and Kazemi, Hossein and Sarbazi, Elham and El-Gorashi, Taisir E. H. and Elmirghani, Jaafar M. H. and Penty, Richard V. and White, Ian H. and Haas, Harald and Safari, Majid (2023) High-speed imaging receiver design for 6G optical wireless communications : a rate-FOV trade-off. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 71 (2). pp. 1024-1043. ISSN 0090-6778 (https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2022.3230954)

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The design of a compact high-speed and wide field of view (FOV) receiver is challenging due to the presence of two well-known trade-offs. The first one is the area-bandwidth trade-off of photodetectors (PDs) and the second one is the gain-FOV trade-off due to the use of optics. The combined effects of these two trade-offs imply that the achievable data rate of an imaging optical receiver is limited by its FOV, i.e., a rate-FOV trade-off. In this paper, we propose an imaging receiver design in the form of an array of (PD) arrays. To control the area-bandwidth trade-off, small PDs are used in an array of arrays structure instead of a single large PD. Moreover, to achieve a reasonable receiver FOV, we use an array of focusing lenses that focus the light individually on each inner PD array. The proposed array of arrays structure provides an effective method to control both gain-FOV trade-off (via an array of lenses) and area-bandwidth trade-off (via arrays of small PDs). We first derive a tractable analytical model for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an array of PDs that is equipped with a focusing lens assuming maximum ratio combining (MRC). Then, we extend the model to the proposed array of arrays structure and the accuracy of the analytical model is verified based on several Optic Studio-based simulations. Next, we formulate an optimization problem to maximize the achievable data rate of the imaging receiver subject to a minimum required FOV. The optimization problem is solved for two commonly used modulation techniques, namely, on-off keying (OOK) and direct current (DC) biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) with variable rate quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Our results show the limits of high speed wide-FOV imaging receivers that can support mobility. For example, it is demonstrated that a data rate of ~ 24 Gbps with a FOV of 15° is achievable using OOK with a total receiver size of 2 cm×2 cm.


Soltani, Mohammad Dehghani, Kazemi, Hossein, Sarbazi, Elham ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7506-2666, El-Gorashi, Taisir E. H., Elmirghani, Jaafar M. H., Penty, Richard V., White, Ian H., Haas, Harald and Safari, Majid;