Wind-plus-battery system optimisation for frequency response service : the UK perspective

Fan, Fulin and Zorzi, Giorgio and Campos-Gaona, David and Nwobu, John (2022) Wind-plus-battery system optimisation for frequency response service : the UK perspective. Electric Power Systems Research, 211. 108400. ISSN 0378-7796 (

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Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) co-located with wind farms (WFs) can provide frequency response (FR) services to AC grids exploiting the existing connection points. The UK FR market reforms introduce the Dynamic Low High (DLH) product that is procured by 4-hourly blocks in weekly auctions. This paper develops a modelling framework to optimise the BESS size along with bidding and operating strategies of a co-location system for the DLH provision based on the UK perspective. Power flows across the system are dispatched by the designed strategies, and employed to estimate the system’s net present value which is then maximised to suggest the best BESS size, state of charge levels for the DLH delivery and WF-BESS interaction, as well as the DLH capacity and 4-hourly blocks to be bid for in weekly auctions. The optimisation results are compared between different strategies and discussed around the feasibility of co-location projects under new circumstances.


Fan, Fulin ORCID logoORCID:, Zorzi, Giorgio, Campos-Gaona, David ORCID logoORCID: and Nwobu, John;