A web-based point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use and quality indicators at Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital, Eswatini and the implications

Gwebu, Prudence C. and Meyer, Johanna C. and Schellack, Natalie and Matsebula-Myeni, Zinhle C. and Godman, Brian (2022) A web-based point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use and quality indicators at Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital, Eswatini and the implications. Hospital Practice. pp. 1-8. ISSN 2377-1003 (https://doi.org/10.1080/21548331.2022.2069247)

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Currently there is limited knowledge regarding antimicrobial utilization patterns among public hospitals in Eswatini. This is a concern given rising resistance rates among African countries. This study aimed to address this by determining antimicrobial utilization patterns using a point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology at Raleigh Fitkin Memorial (RFM) Hospital. The findings would be used to identify potential interventions to improve future antimicrobial utilization. A PPS was conducted using a web-based application (App). Antimicrobials were categorized according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification. Each ward in the hospital was surveyed in one day using patient files. All patients in the ward, admitted by 08h30 on the day of the survey, were included. Ethical clearance was granted by the university and Eswatini Ethics. Overall, 68 patient files in 12 wards were surveyed, with 88.2% (60/68) receiving at least one antimicrobial. The most widely prescribed antimicrobials were amoxicillin (24.5%), and ceftriaxone IV (21.6%), mostly from the Access group (69.9%), and zero from the Reserve group. In the past 90 days prior to admission, most patients (60.3%; 41/68) were not receiving any antimicrobials. Of concern was that antimicrobial use was empirical for all patients (100%) with mostly parenteral administration (88.3%; 91/103). In addition, the majority of surgical prophylaxis patients (80%; 12/15) were given an extended course post surgery. There was also no documented switch or stop dates, or patient culture and drug sensitivity results. Antimicrobial utilization is high at RFM hospital. Identified targets for quality improvement programs include encouraging earlier switching to oral antimicrobials, reducing extended use for surgical prophylaxis and encouraging greater sensitivity testing and documentation stop dates. The development of the App appreciably reduced data collection times and analysis, and would be recommended for use in other public hospitals.