Risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19 : the Kuwait experience

Al Saleh, Mohammad and Alotaibi, Naser and Schrapp, Kelly and Alsaber, Ahmad and Pan, Jiazhu and Almutairi, Farah and Abdullah, Mohammed and Aboelhassan, Wael and AlNasrallah, Noor and Al-Bader, Bader and Malhas, Haya and Ramadhan, Maryam and Hamza, Mahdy and Abdelnaby, Hassan and Alroomi, Moudhi (2022) Risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19 : the Kuwait experience. Medical Principles and Practice, 31 (2). pp. 180-186. ISSN 1423-0151 (https://doi.org/10.1159/000522166)

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Objectives: To describe the baseline characteristics and to evaluate the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to hospitals with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Kuwait. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data of patients admitted to two hospitals in Kuwait with COVID-19. The outcome was assessed by using multivariable analysis of factors affecting survival and mortality. Results: In the 962 patients, the case fatality ratio was 9.04%. The mean age of non-survivors was 63.5 ± 14.8 years, and most deaths occurred in males (80.5%). For the whole sample, source of transmission was significantly related to mortality and the median duration of in- hospital stay was 15 (interquartile range: 2–52) days. In patients with high oxygen requirements, the case fatality rate was 96.6%. Multivariable analysis identified age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and dyspnoea on presentation as independent risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. Conclusions: The mortality rate was higher in older patients with comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Early recognition of high-risk patients may help to improve care and reduce mortality.


Al Saleh, Mohammad, Alotaibi, Naser, Schrapp, Kelly, Alsaber, Ahmad ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9478-0404, Pan, Jiazhu ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7346-2052, Almutairi, Farah, Abdullah, Mohammed, Aboelhassan, Wael, AlNasrallah, Noor, Al-Bader, Bader, Malhas, Haya, Ramadhan, Maryam, Hamza, Mahdy, Abdelnaby, Hassan and Alroomi, Moudhi;