2-D optical-CDMA modulation with hard-limiting for automotive time-of-flight LIDAR

Lo, Feng-Wen and Yang, Guu-Chang and Lin, Wei-Yi and Glesk, Ivan and Kwong, Wing C. (2021) 2-D optical-CDMA modulation with hard-limiting for automotive time-of-flight LIDAR. IEEE Photonics Journal, 13 (6). 7200111. ISSN 1943-0655

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    Abstract

    In this proof-of-principle paper, the application of 2-D optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) modulation to long-range automotive time-of-flight (ToF) light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is studied. The regulations and physical constraints that govern the design parameters are reviewed. Using 2-D carrier-hopping prime codes (CHPCs), the modulation model and a novel 2-D hard-limiting decoder are designed and validated with OptiSystem$^{\rm {TM}}$ simulations. Based on the design parameters, the 2-D CHPCs have six times as many distinct sequences (for sensor identification) as 1-D code sequences. Analytical and simulation studies show that the proposed 2-D OCDMA modulation model can eliminate the near-far (power) problem and support more LiDAR sensors with distinctive ToF tags, greater interference robustness for more simultaneous ToF measurements, and better performance than the 1-D counterparts. The simulation results show that the 2-D model can support four times as many simultaneous emitting sensors without false detections as the 1-D model. In summary, the 2-D OCDMA modulation has more benefits and is more cost efficient overall, even though it is more complex.

    ORCID iDs

    Lo, Feng-Wen, Yang, Guu-Chang, Lin, Wei-Yi, Glesk, Ivan ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3176-8069 and Kwong, Wing C.;