Current failure mechanisms and treatment methods of hot forging tools (dies) - a review

Emamverdian, Ali Akbar and Sun, Yu and Cao, Chunping and Pruncu, Catalin and Wang, Yu (2021) Current failure mechanisms and treatment methods of hot forging tools (dies) - a review. Engineering Failure Analysis, 129. 105678. ISSN 1350-6307 (

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This article presents a critical overview of the current failure mechanisms and treatment methods applied to improve the surface integrity of die tools used in hot forging process. The knowledge from this study enables a longer mean times between failures and cost-effective processes. In literature, several independent review works have been developed to provide a conceptual overview of failures and treatment methods. Despite all these efforts, there is still no comprehensive review of failures and improvement methods in a mutual frame to show the current research status for preventing failures in hot forging tools. In the present study, the current failure mechanisms and treatment methods have been presented based on theoretical knowledge and empirical knowledge obtained from the experience of the authors. This paper aims to provide a conceptual perspective of hot forging tool failures, including wear (abrasive wear, adhesive wear, oxidation, and thermal fatigue cracking), mechanical fatigue cracking, and plastic deformation, and the corresponding treatment methods, including surface treatment (nitriding, hybrid procedure, pad welding, beam technology, and mechanical treatment) and coating techniques (CVD, PVD, duplex coating, PACVD, and TRD) which in turn allows to control and potentially extend the life of die tools used in metal forming process.


Emamverdian, Ali Akbar, Sun, Yu, Cao, Chunping, Pruncu, Catalin ORCID logoORCID: and Wang, Yu;