Detection and quantification of warfarin in pharmaceutical dosage form and in spiked human plasma using surface enhanced Raman scattering

Sultan, Maha A. and El-Alamin, Maha M. and Wark, Alastair W. and Azab, Marwa W. (2020) Detection and quantification of warfarin in pharmaceutical dosage form and in spiked human plasma using surface enhanced Raman scattering. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 228. 117533. ISSN 1386-1425

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    Abstract

    Analytical approaches for the quantitation of warfarin in plasma are high in demand. In this study, a novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique for the quantification of the widely used anticoagulant warfarin sodium in pharmaceutical dosage form and in spiked human plasma was developed. The colloidal-based SERS measurements were carefully optimized considering the laser wavelength, the type of metal nanoparticles, their surface functionalization and concentration as well as the time required for warfarin to associate with the metal surface. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) coated silver nanoparticles (PDDA-AgNPs) were established as a substrate which greatly enhanced the weak warfarin Raman signal with high reproducibility. The limit of detection was calculated in both water and human plasma to be 0.56 nM (0.17 ngmL-1) and 0.25 nM (0.08 ngmL-1) respectively, with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. The proposed method is simple, economical, and easily applied for routine application requiring only small plasma samples and also could be potentially useful for pharmacokinetic research on warfarin.

    ORCID iDs

    Sultan, Maha A., El-Alamin, Maha M., Wark, Alastair W. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8736-7566 and Azab, Marwa W.;