Low-field high-resolution PFG-NMR to predict the size distribution of inner droplets in double emulsions

Khadem, Behnam and Parrott, Andrew and Nordon, Alison and Sheibat-Othman, Nida (2021) Low-field high-resolution PFG-NMR to predict the size distribution of inner droplets in double emulsions. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 123 (1). 2000193. ISSN 1438-9312

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    Abstract

    In double emulsions, the inner and outer droplet size distribution (DSD) determines the quality of the double emulsion and is therefore essential to be measured. Low-field high-resolution pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance is used to measure the inner DSD in water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions. The Gaussian phase distribution approach is employed with a mixture of two normal distributions to predict bimodal inner droplets. This approach allows the prediction of the swelling of inner droplet during storage of double emulsions, and thus to validate a phenomenological population balance model estimating inner droplet swelling. Only a fraction of the inner droplets are found to swell during storage, due to differences in the Laplace pressure, thus leading to the formation of a bimodal size distribution of the inner droplets. Practical Applications: This methodology is useful to predict the evolution of double emulsions during storage, in a wide range of applications, such as food and pharmaceutical products.

    ORCID iDs

    Khadem, Behnam, Parrott, Andrew ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4598-2736, Nordon, Alison ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6553-8993 and Sheibat-Othman, Nida;