Comprehensive multivariate correlations between climatic effect, metabolite-profile, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Brazilian red propolis metabolites during seasonal study

do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes and dos Santos Arruda, Rodolfo Elleson and da Cruz Almeida, Erika Tayse and dos Santos Oliveira, José Marcos and Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz and Celerino de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina and Rodrigues Sabino, Adilson and Tonholo, Josealdo and Gray, Alexander and Edrada Ebel, RuAngelie and Clements, Carol and Zhang, Tong and Watson, David George (2019) Comprehensive multivariate correlations between climatic effect, metabolite-profile, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Brazilian red propolis metabolites during seasonal study. Scientific Reports, 9. pp. 1-16. 18293. ISSN 2045-2322

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    Abstract

    The standardization of apiceutical products like as propolis extracts has been widely debated worldwide and variations in the propolis chemical composition are still very relevant topics for use-standardized of different propolis-type as medication by much of the world’s population. The present manuscript discuss important issues related to the climate effect and variations in propolis metabolite-profiling changes, antioxidant capacity and variations of the antibacterial activity of the Brazilian red propolis metabolites using comprehensive multivariate correlations. It was observed the increasing of guttiferones concentrations during the intense drought period and drastic decreasing in rainy period. The climate variation induced the high concentration of flavonoids in rainy period with pronounced dropped in some rainy months. The Pearson´s analysis demonstrated correlation between IC50 from DPPH and guttiferones and flavonoids concentrations. The PCA-X and Hotelling T2 test showed outliers during the months with lowest concentrations of formononetin and isoliquiritigenin was observed in antibacterial tests. The PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and VIP analysis demonstrate guttiferone E, guttiferone B, liquiritigenin, naringenin are considered important substances responsible by anti-staphylococcal activity in red propolis composition during the rainy season and drought period, but a synergistic effect with other flavonoids and isoflavonoids are not ruled out.