Antimicrobial utilization research and activities in Botswana, the past, present and the future

Tiroyakgosi, Celda and Matome, Matshediso and Kgatlwane, Joyce and Paramadhas, Bene D Anand and Malone, Brighid and Mpinda-Joseph, Pinkie and Rwegerera, Godfrey Mutashambara and Maika, Keamogetse and Mashalla, Yohana and Godman, Brian and Massele, Amos (2019) Antimicrobial utilization research and activities in Botswana, the past, present and the future. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 17 (10). pp. 759-762. ISSN 1744-8336 (

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A number of activities are ongoing to reduce AMR in Botswana by improving antimicrobial utilization across all sectors. However, there is a need to share experiences. With the objective of sharing these, the second one day symposium was held in the University of Botswana in October 2018 involving both private and public hospitals. In Lenmed Bokamoso hospital, ESKAPE organisms were associated with 50-90% of clinical infections; however, there was no correlation between healthcare associated infections (HAIs) and admission swab positivity with ESKAPE or ESBL isolates. Hang times, the time between a prescription and IV administration, were also discussed. At Nyangabwe Hospital, the prevalence of HAIs was 13.54%, 48.9% were laboratory confirmed of which 8.5% were blood stream infections (BSIs). The prevalence of different bacteria causing neonatal BSIs was also investigated. At Princess Marina Hospital, positive cultures were seen in 22.4% of blood cultures with contaminants comprising the majority. Several activities are ongoing in Botswana across sectors as a result of the findings and will be periodically reported to further improve antibiotic utilization.