Word-representability of Toeplitz graphs

Cheon, Gi-Sang and Kitaev, Sergey and Kim, Jinha and Kim, Minki (2019) Word-representability of Toeplitz graphs. Discrete Applied Mathematics. pp. 1-18. ISSN 0166-218X (In Press)

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    Abstract

    Distinct letters x and y alternate in a word w if after deleting in w all letters but the copies of x and y we either obtain a word of the form xyxy... (of even or odd length) or a word of the form yxyx... (of even or odd length). A graph G=(V,E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alphabet V such that letters x and y alternate in w if and only if xy is an edge in E. In this paper we initiate the study of word-representable Toeplitz graphs, which are Riordan graphs of the Appell type. We prove that several general classes of Toeplitz graphs are word-representable, and we also provide a way to construct non-word-representable Toeplitz graphs. Our work not only merges the theories of Riordan matrices and word-representable graphs via the notion of a Riordan graph, but also it provides the first systematic study of word-representability of graphs defined via patterns in adjacency matrices. Moreover, our paper introduces the notion of an infinite word-representable Riordan graph and gives several general examples of such graphs. It is the first time in the literature when the word-representability of infinite graphs is discussed.