Quantifying sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions in free-living environments using the activPAL thigh-worn activity monitor

Pickford, Chris G. and Findlow, Andrew H and Kerr, Andy and Banger, Matthew and Clarke-Cornwell, Alexandra M. and Hollands, Kristen L. and Quinn, Terry and Granat, Malcolm H. (2019) Quantifying sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions in free-living environments using the activPAL thigh-worn activity monitor. Gait and Posture, 73. pp. 140-146. ISSN 0966-6362

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    Abstract

    Purpose: Standing up, sitting down and walking require considerable effort and coordination, which are crucial indicators to rehabilitation (e.g. stroke), and in older populations may indicate the onset of frailty and physical and cognitive decline. Currently, there are few reports robustly quantifying sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions in free-living environments. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify these transitions using the peak velocity of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions to determine if these velocities were different in a healthy cohort and a mobility-impaired population. Methods: Free-living sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit acceleration data were recorded from 21 healthy volunteers and 34 stroke survivors using activPAL3™ monitors over a one-week period. Thigh inclination velocity was calculated from these accelerometer data. Maximum velocities were compared between populations. Results: A total of 10,299 and 11,392 sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions were recorded in healthy volunteers and stroke survivors, respectively. Healthy volunteers had significantly higher overall mean peak velocities for both transitions compared with stroke survivors [70.7°/s ± 52.2 versus 44.2°/s ± 28.0 for sit-to-stand, P < 0.001 and 74.7°/s ± 51.8 versus 46.0°/s ± 31.9 for stand-to-sit; P < 0.001]. Mean peak velocity of transition was associated with increased variation in peak velocity across both groups. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the mean peak velocity of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions between the groups. Variation in an individual's mean peak velocity may be associated with the ability to perform these transitions. This method could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions following injury such as stroke, as well as monitor decline in functional ability.