Thermal-error regime in high-accuracy gigahertz single-electron pumping

Zhao, R. and Rossi, A. and Giblin, S. P. and Fletcher, J. D. and Hudson, F. E. and Möttönen, M. and Kataoka, M. and Dzurak, A. S. (2017) Thermal-error regime in high-accuracy gigahertz single-electron pumping. Physical Review Applied, 8 (4). 044021. ISSN 2331-7019

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    Abstract

    Single-electron pumps based on semiconductor quantum dots are promising candidates for the emerging quantum standard of electrical current. They can transfer discrete charges with part-per-million (ppm) precision in nanosecond time scales. Here, we employ a metal-oxide-semiconductor silicon quantum dot to experimentally demonstrate high-accuracy gigahertz single-electron pumping in the regime where the number of electrons trapped in the dot is determined by the thermal distribution in the reservoir leads. In a measurement with traceability to primary voltage and resistance standards, the averaged pump current over the quantized plateau, driven by a 1-GHz sinusoidal wave in the absence of a magnetic field, is equal to the ideal value of ef within a measurement uncertainty as low as 0.27 ppm.