In vivo validation of a miniaturised electrochemical oxygen sensor for measuring intestinal oxygen tension

Gray, Mark E. and Marland, Jamie R. K. and Dunare, Camelia and Blair, Ewen O. and Meehan, James and Tsiamis, Andreas and Kunkler, Ian H. and Murray, Alan F. and Argyle, David and Dyson, Alex and Singer, Mervyn and Potter, Mark A. (2019) In vivo validation of a miniaturised electrochemical oxygen sensor for measuring intestinal oxygen tension. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 317 (2). G242-G252. ISSN 1522-1547 (

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Recent advances in the fields of electronics and microfabrication techniques have led to the development of implantable medical devices for use within the field of precision medicine. Monitoring visceral surface tissue O2 tension (ptO2) by means of an implantable sensor is potentially useful in many clinical situations including the peri-operative management of patients undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis. This concept could provide a means by which treatment could be tailored to individual patients. This study describes the in vivo validation of a novel miniaturised electrochemical O2 sensor to provide real-time data on intestinal ptO2. A single O2 sensor was placed onto the serosal surface of the small intestine of anaesthetised rats that were exposed to ischaemic (superior mesenteric artery occlusion) and hypoxaemic (alterations in inspired fractional O2 concentrations) insults. Control experiments demonstrated that the sensors function and remain stable in an in vivo environment. Intestinal ptO2 decreased following superior mesenteric artery occlusion and with reductions in inspired O2 concentrations. These results were reversible after reinstating blood flow or increasing inspired O2 concentrations. We have successfully developed an anaesthetised rat intestinal ischaemic and hypoxic model for validation of a miniaturised O2 sensor to provide real-time measurement of intestinal ptO2. Our results support further validation of the sensors in physiological conditions using a large animal model to provide evidence of their use in clinical applications where monitoring visceral surface tissue O2 tension is important.


Gray, Mark E., Marland, Jamie R. K., Dunare, Camelia, Blair, Ewen O. ORCID logoORCID:, Meehan, James, Tsiamis, Andreas, Kunkler, Ian H., Murray, Alan F., Argyle, David, Dyson, Alex, Singer, Mervyn and Potter, Mark A.;