A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology

Henderson, Robert K. and Johnston, Nick and Mattioli Della Rocca, Francesco and Chen, Haochang and Li, David Day-Uei and Hungerford, Graham and Hirsch, Richard and McLoskey, David and Yip, Philip and Birch, David J.S. (2019) A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 54 (7). pp. 1907-1916. ISSN 0018-9200

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    Abstract

    A 192 X 128 pixel single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) time-resolved single photon counting (TCSPC) image sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40-nm CMOS technology. The 13% fill factor, 18.4\,\,\mu \text {m} \times 9.2\,\,\mu \text{m} pixel contains a 33-ps resolution, 135-ns full scale, 12-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 0.9-LSB differential and 5.64-LSB integral nonlinearity (DNL/INL). The sensor achieves a mean 219-ps full-width half-maximum (FWHM) impulse response function (IRF) and is operable at up to 18.6 kframes/s through 64 parallelized serial outputs. Cylindrical microlenses with a concentration factor of 3.25 increase the fill factor to 42%. The median dark count rate (DCR) is 25 Hz at 1.5-V excess bias. A digital calibration scheme integrated into a column of the imager allows off-chip digital process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation of every frame on the fly. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) results are presented.

    ORCID iDs

    Henderson, Robert K., Johnston, Nick, Mattioli Della Rocca, Francesco, Chen, Haochang ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6196-4418, Li, David Day-Uei ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6401-4263, Hungerford, Graham, Hirsch, Richard, McLoskey, David, Yip, Philip ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2725-7474 and Birch, David J.S. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6400-1270;