Untargeted metabolomics of extracts from faecal samples demonstrates distinct differences between paediatric Crohn's disease patients and healthy controls but no significant changes resulting from exclusive enteral nutrition treatment

Alghamdi, Adel and Gerasimidis, Konstantinos and Blackburn, Gavin and Akinci, Didem and Edwards, Christine and Russell, Richard K. and Watson, David G. (2018) Untargeted metabolomics of extracts from faecal samples demonstrates distinct differences between paediatric Crohn's disease patients and healthy controls but no significant changes resulting from exclusive enteral nutrition treatment. Metabolites, 8 (4). ISSN 2218-1989

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    Abstract

    Metabolomic profiling using high resolution mass spectrometry with hydrophilic interaction chromatography was applied to 11 faecal extracts from eleven healthy children and to 43 faecal extracts from eleven children undergoing exclusive enteral nutrition for the treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD) at timepoints before, during (15, 30, and 60 days), and after treatment. Differences between the control and CD samples were identified at each timepoint. An orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model identified eight metabolites that were normally distributed according to Q-Q plots. The OPLS-DA model was able to discriminate the CD samples from the controls at every timepoint, but the model was not able to differentiate the CD samples from one another at the different timepoints during treatment with exclusive enteral nutrition. The differentiated metabolites identified in the CD samples included tyrosine, an ornithine isomer, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, a sphingomyelin, a ceramide, and dimethylsphinganine. Despite successful treatment, underlying differences remained in the metabolome of the CD patients. These differences dominated the separation of the samples when multivariate methods were applied.