A 192 x 128 time correlated single photon counting imager in 40nm CMOS technology

Henderson, Robert K. and Johnston, Nick and Chen, Haochang and Li, David Day-Uei and Hungerford, Graham and Hirsch, Richard and Yip, Philip and McLoskey, David and Birch, David (2018) A 192 x 128 time correlated single photon counting imager in 40nm CMOS technology. In: 44th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) 2018. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ.

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    Abstract

    A 192 x 128 pixel single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) time-resolved single photon counting (TCPSC) image sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40nm CMOS technology. The 13 % fill-factor, 18.4 x 9.2 mm pixel contains a 33 ps resolution, 135 ns full-scale, 12-bit time to digital converter (TDC) with 0.9 LSB differential and 8.7 LSB integral nonlinearity (DNL/INL). The sensor achieves a mean 219 ps fullwidth half maximum (FWHM) impulse response function (IRF) and a 5 mW core power consumption and is operable at up to 18.6 kfps. Cylindrical microlenses with a concentration factor of 3.15 increase the fill-factor to 41%. The median dark count rate (DCR) is 25 Hz at 1.5 V excess bias. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) results are presented.