Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems

Mercer, E. and Cruddas, P. and Williams, L. and Kolios, A. and Parker, A. and Tyrrel, S. and Cartmell, E. and Pidou, M. and McAdam, E. J. (2016) Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems. Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, 2 (6). pp. 953-964. ISSN 2053-1419

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    Abstract

    To ensure adequate access to sanitation in developing economies, off-grid single household sanitation has been proposed which obviates the need for significant infrastructure capital investment. Whilst treatment at this scale is most efficient when coupled to source separation (i.e. urine from faeces), existing source separation solutions have proved difficult to implement in this context. In this study, screw extrusion is therefore investigated to provide 'post-flush' source separation. Both screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions were evaluated. Preferential screw characteristics included tapering of the shaft and progressive pitch reduction, linked to a small extrusion aperture, the combination of which enhanced solids extrusion efficiency and promoted higher solids concentration in the extruded fraction. Whilst maximum extrusion efficiency was observed at high rotational speeds (over 400 rpm), this also promoted free water transport. Operating below 300 rpm instead introduced selectivity for transport of faecal sludge over urine, enabling phase separation. Constraining the volumetric ratio of urine to faeces also enhanced the extrusion rate of faecal sludge by increasing feed viscosity sufficient to overcome backpressure imposed by unmasticated food particles that would otherwise restrict separation. Importantly, this study demonstrates the feasibility of screw extrusion for 'post flush' separation of urine and faeces which constitutes a significant advancement towards realising sanitation at a single household scale.