Picture of boy being examining by doctor at a tuberculosis sanatorium

Understanding our future through Open Access research about our past...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Centre for the Social History of Health & Healthcare (CSHHH), based within the School of Humanities, and considered Scotland's leading centre for the history of health and medicine.

Research at CSHHH explores the modern world since 1800 in locations as diverse as the UK, Asia, Africa, North America, and Europe. Areas of specialism include contraception and sexuality; family health and medical services; occupational health and medicine; disability; the history of psychiatry; conflict and warfare; and, drugs, pharmaceuticals and intoxicants.

Explore the Open Access research of the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Image: Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. Wellcome Collection - CC-BY.

Could magnetic properties be used to image a grouted rock volume?

Lunn, R.J. and Corson, L.T. and Howell, C. and El Mountassir, G. and Reid, C. and Harley, S.L. (2018) Could magnetic properties be used to image a grouted rock volume? Journal of Applied Geophysics, 155. pp. 162-175. ISSN 0926-9851

Text (Lunn-etal-JAG-2018-Could-magnetic-properties-be-used-to-image-a-grouted-rock-volume)
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (7MB) | Preview


In this study, the feasibility to develop a detectable permeation grouting system is tested, based on the addition of magnetic materials to the grout, specifically, magnetite. A magnetic-based detection system is selected for development because unlike other previously trialled detection methods, magnetic fields are detectable over large distances within the subsurface, and importantly, attenuation of the magnetic field is not strongly dependent on the material properties of the surrounding rock. To test the conceptual feasibility of such a system, a finite element based numerical model is developed to simulate the magnetic field anomaly that can be achieved by the addition of magnetic materials to a cement grout. The model is verified against an analytical solution and then used to predict the magnetic field generated by a grouted cylinder of rock, assuming a fixed percentage of uniformly distributed magnetic minerals, and a central injection borehole. Two field trials are conducted to verify the detectable grouting concept, the first using a walkover survey that allowed mapping of the magnetic signal in 2D. The second is designed to mimic magnetic field measurements from a borehole monitoring array, with a single central magnetic grout block (representing the grout close to the injection point). Results of the two field trials show that the magnetic cement is detectable, even when the background magnetic noise within the surrounding soils/rocks is significant. A good agreement is obtained between the measured and the modelled magnetic anomaly. This research opens the door to the development of a ‘detectable’ magnetic grouting system, that can increase confidence in the integrity of grouted rock volumes and reduce the inefficiencies currently present in the grouting industry, enabling in-situ real-time optimisation of grouting campaigns.