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Upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from advanced LIGO's first observing run

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abernathy, M. R. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, C. and Adams, T. and Addesso, P. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arnaud, N. and Arun, K. G. and Ascenzi, S. and Ashton, G. and Ast, M. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Avila-Alvarez, A. and Babak, S. and Bacon, P. and Bader, M. K M and Baker, P. T. and Baldaccini, F. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barclay, S. E. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, David and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Batch, J. C. and Baune, C. and Bavigadda, V. and Bazzan, M. and Beer, C. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Belgin, M. and Bell, A. S. and Berger, B. K. and Bergmann, G. and Berry, C. P L and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhagwat, S. and Bhandare, R. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Billman, C. R. and Birch, J. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Biscoveanu, A. S. and Bisht, A. and Bitossi, M. and Biwer, C. and Bizouard, M. A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. A. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bloemen, S. and Bock, O. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Bohe, A. and Bondu, F. and Bonnand, R. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Briant, T. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brisson, V. and Brockill, P. and Broida, J. E. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. D. and Brown, D. 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J. and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Yvert, M. and Zadrożny, A. and Zangrando, L. and Zanolin, M. and Zendri, J. P. and Zevin, M. and Zhang, L. and Zhang, M. and Zhang, T. and Zhang, Y. and Zhao, C. and Zhou, M. and Zhou, Z. and Zhu, S. J. and Zhu, X. J. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J., (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (2017) Upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from advanced LIGO's first observing run. Physical Review Letters, 118 (12). ISSN 0031-9007

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Abstract

A wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological sources are expected to contribute to a stochastic gravitational-wave background. Following the observations of GW150914 and GW151226, the rate and mass of coalescing binary black holes appear to be greater than many previous expectations. As a result, the stochastic background from unresolved compact binary coalescences is expected to be particularly loud. We perform a search for the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using data from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run. The data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. We constrain the dimensionless energy density of gravitational waves to be Ω0<1.7×10-7 with 95% confidence, assuming a flat energy density spectrum in the most sensitive part of the LIGO band (20-86 Hz). This is a factor of ∼33 times more sensitive than previous measurements. We also constrain arbitrary power-law spectra. Finally, we investigate the implications of this search for the background of binary black holes using an astrophysical model for the background.