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First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

Aasi, J. and Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abernathy, M. R. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, C. and Adams, T. and Addesso, P. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allocca, A. and Amariutei, D. V. and Andersen, M. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Arceneaux, C. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arnaud, N. and Ashton, G. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. T. and Baldaccini, F. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barclay, S. E. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Batch, J. C. and Baune, C. and Bavigadda, V. and Behnke, B. and Bejger, M. and Belczynski, C. and Bell, A. S. and Berger, B. K. and Bergman, J. and Bergmann, G. and Berry, C. P L and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhagwat, S. and Bhandare, R. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birch, J. and Birney, R. and Biscans, S. and Bitossi, M. and Biwer, C. and Bizouard, M. A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. and Bloemen, S. and Bock, O. and Bodiya, T. P. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Bojtos, P. and Bond, C. and Bondu, F. and Bonnand, R. and Bork, R. and Born, M. and Boschi, V. and Bose, Sukanta and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Branchesi, M. and Branco, V. and Brau, J. E. and Briant, T. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brisson, V. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brown, D. and Brown, D. D. and Brown, N. M. and Buchanan, C. C. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buskulic, D. and Buy, C. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Calderón Bustillo, J. and Calloni, E. and Camp, J. B. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Capano, C. D. and Capocasa, E. and Carbognani, F. and Caride, S. and Casanueva Diaz, J. and Casentini, C. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Celerier, C. and Cella, G. and Cepeda, C. and Cerboni Baiardi, L. and Cerretani, G. and Cesarini, E. and Chakraborty, R. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chamberlin, S. J. and Chao, S. and Charlton, P. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chen, X. and Chen, Y. and Cheng, C. and Chincarini, A. and Chiummo, A. and Cho, H. S. and Cho, M. and Chow, J. H. and Christensen, N. and Chu, Q. and Chua, S. and Chung, S. and Ciani, G. and Clara, F. and Clark, J. A. and Cleva, F. and Coccia, E. and Cohadon, P. F. and Colla, A. and Collette, C. G. and Colombini, M. and Constancio, M. and Conte, A. and Conti, L. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. and Cornish, N. and Corsi, A. and Costa, C. A. and Coughlin, M. W. and Coughlin, S. B. and Coulon, J. P. and Countryman, S. T. and Couvares, P. and Coward, D. M. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Coyne, R. and Craig, K. and Creighton, J. D E and Cripe, J. and Crowder, S. G. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Cuoco, E. and Canton, T. Dal and Damjanic, M. D. and Danilishin, S. L. and D'Antonio, S. and Danzmann, K. and Darman, N. S. and Dattilo, V. and Dave, I. and Daveloza, H. P. and Davier, M. and Davies, G. S. and Daw, E. J. and Day, R. and Debra, D. and Debreczeni, G. and Degallaix, J. and De Laurentis, M. and Deléglise, S. and Del Pozzo, W. and Denker, T. and Dent, T. and Dereli, H. and Dergachev, V. and De Rosa, R. and Derosa, R. T. and Desalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. C. and Di Fiore, L. and Di Giovanni, M. and Di Lieto, A. and Di Palma, I. and Di Virgilio, A. and Dojcinoski, G. and Dolique, V. and Dominguez, E. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Douglas, R. and Downes, T. P. and Drago, M. and Drever, R. W P and Driggers, J. C. and Du, Z. and Ducrot, M. and Dwyer, S. E. and Edo, T. B. and Edwards, M. C. and Edwards, M. and Effler, A. and Eggenstein, H. B. and Ehrens, P. and Eichholz, J. M. and Eikenberry, S. S. and Essick, R. C. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Everett, R. and Factourovich, M. and Fafone, V. and Fairhurst, S. and Fang, Q. and Farinon, S. and Farr, B. and Farr, W. M. and Favata, M. and Fays, M. and Fehrmann, H. and Fejer, M. M. and Feldbaum, D. and Ferrante, I. and Ferreira, E. C. and Ferrini, F. and Fidecaro, F. and Fiori, I. and Fisher, R. P. and Flaminio, R. and Fournier, J. D. and Franco, S. and Frasca, S. and Frasconi, F. and Frede, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Gabbard, H. A G and Gair, J. R. and Gammaitoni, L. and Gaonkar, S. 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J. and Hartman, M. T. and Haster, C. J. and Haughian, K. and Heidmann, A. and Heintze, M. C. and Heitmann, H. and Hello, P. and Hemming, G. and Hendry, M. and Heng, I. S. and Hennig, J. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Heurs, M. and Hild, S. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Hoelscher-Obermaier, J. and Hofman, D. and Hollitt, S. E. and Holt, K. and Hopkins, P. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Houston, E. A. and Howell, E. J. and Hu, Y. M. and Huang, S. and Huerta, E. A. and Huet, D. and Hughey, B. and Husa, S. and Huttner, S. H. and Huynh, M. and Huynh-Dinh, T. and Idrisy, A. and Indik, N. and Ingram, D. R. and Inta, R. and Islas, G. and Isler, J. C. and Isogai, T. and Iyer, B. R. and Izumi, K. and Jacobson, M. B. and Jang, H. and Jaranowski, P. and Jawahar, S. and Ji, Y. and Jiménez-Forteza, F. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, R. and Jonker, R. J G and Ju, L. and Haris, K. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kang, G. and Kanner, J. B. and Karki, S. and Karlen, J. L. and Kasprzack, M. and Katsavounidis, E. and Katzman, W. and Kaufer, S. and Kaur, T. and Kawabe, K. and Kawazoe, F. and Kéfélian, F. and Kehl, M. S. and Keitel, D. and Kelley, D. B. and Kells, W. and Kerrigan, J. and Key, J. S. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, Z. and Khazanov, E. A. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Kim, C. and Kim, K. and Kim, N. G. and Kim, N. and Kim, Y. M. and King, E. J. and King, P. J. and Kinzel, D. L. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kline, J. T. and Koehlenbeck, S. M. and Kokeyama, K. and Koley, S. and Kondrashov, V. and Korobko, M. and Korth, W. Z. and Kowalska, I. and Kozak, D. B. and Kringel, V. and Krishnan, B. and Królak, A. and Krueger, C. and Kuehn, G. and Kumar, A. and Kumar, P. and Kuo, L. and Kutynia, A. and Lackey, B. D. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lasky, P. D. and Lazzarini, A. and Lazzaro, C. and Leaci, P. and Leavey, S. and Lebigot, E. O. and Lee, C. H. and Lee, H. K. and Lee, H. M. and Lee, J. and Lee, J. P. and Leonardi, M. and Leong, J. R. and Leroy, N. and Letendre, N. and Levin, Y. and Levine, B. M. and Lewis, J. B. and Li, T. G F and Libson, A. and Lin, A. C. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lockett, V. and Lodhia, D. and Logue, J. and Lombardi, A. L. and Lorenzini, M. and Loriette, V. and Lormand, M. and Losurdo, G. and Lough, J. D. and Lubinski, M. J. and Lück, H. and Lundgren, A. P. and Luo, J. and Lynch, R. and Ma, Y. and Macarthur, J. and Macdonald, E. P. and Macdonald, T. and Machenschalk, B. and Macinnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Madden-Fong, D. X. and Magaña-Sandoval, F. and Magee, R. M. and Mageswaran, M. and Majorana, E. and Maksimovic, I. and Malvezzi, V. and Man, N. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Mangano, V. and Mangini, N. M. and Mansell, G. L. and Manske, M. and Mantovani, M. and Marchesoni, F. and Marion, F. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markosyan, A. S. and Maros, E. and Martelli, F. and Martellini, L. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Martynov, D. V. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Masserot, A. and Massinger, T. J. and Mastrogiovanni, S. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Mavalvala, N. and Mazumder, N. and Mazzolo, G. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McGuire, S. C. and McIntyre, G. and McIver, J. and McWilliams, S. T. and Meacher, D. and Meadors, G. D. and Mehmet, M. and Meidam, J. and Meinders, M. and Melatos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Merzougui, M. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Messick, C. and Meyers, P. M. and Mezzani, F. and Miao, H. and Michel, C. and Middleton, H. and Mikhailov, E. E. and Milano, L. and Miller, J. and Millhouse, M. and Minenkov, Y. and Ming, J. and Mirshekari, S. and Mishra, C. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Moe, B. and Moggi, A. and Mohan, M. and Mohapatra, S. R P and Montani, M. and Moore, B. C. and Moraru, D. and Moreno, G. and Morriss, S. R. and Mossavi, K. and Mours, B. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mueller, C. L. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, A. and Mukherjee, S. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murphy, D. J. and Murray, P. G. and Mytidis, A. and Nagy, M. F. and Nardecchia, I. and Naticchioni, L. and Nayak, R. K. and Necula, V. and Nedkova, K. and Nelemans, G. and Neri, M. and Newton, G. and Nguyen, T. T. and Nielsen, A. B. and Nitz, A. and Nocera, F. and Nolting, D. and Normandin, M. E N and Nuttall, L. K. and Ochsner, E. and O'Dell, J. and Oelker, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Oh, J. J. and Oh, S. H. and Ohme, F. and Okounkova, M. and Oppermann, P. and Oram, R. and O'Reilly, B. and Ortega, W. E. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ott, C. D. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Padilla, C. T. and Pai, A. and Pai, S. A. and Palamos, J. R. and Palashov, O. and Palomba, C. and Pal-Singh, A. and Pan, H. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Pannarale, F. and Pant, B. C. and Paoletti, F. and Papa, M. A. and Paris, H. 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In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between -1.0×10-10 and +1.5×10-11 Hz/s, and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short fast Fourier transforms, of length 8192 s, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, in both the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each data set a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and for the coincidence step greatly reduce the harmful effect of large instrumental artifacts. Selected candidates have been subject to a follow-up by constructing a new set of longer fast Fourier transforms followed by a further incoherent analysis, still based on the FrequencyHough transform. No evidence for continuous gravitational wave signals was found, and therefore we have set a population-based joint VSR2-VSR4 90% confidence level upper limit on the dimensionless gravitational wave strain in the frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz. This is the first all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves conducted, on data of ground-based interferometric detectors, at frequencies below 50 Hz. We set upper limits in the range between about 10-24 and 2×10-23 at most frequencies. Our upper limits on signal strain show an improvement of up to a factor of ∼2 with respect to the results of previous all-sky searches at frequencies below 80 Hz.