Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with advanced LIGO and advanced virgo

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abernathy, M. R. and Adhikari, R. X. and Anderson, S. B. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barish, B. C. and Berger, B. K. and Billingsley, G. and Blackburn, J. K. and Bork, R. and Brooks, A. F. and Cahillane, C. and Callister, T. and Cepeda, C. and Chakraborty, R. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Couvares, P. and Coyne, D. C. and Dergachev, V. and Drever, R. W. P. and Ehrens, P. and Etzel, T. and Gossan, S. E. and Gushwa, K. E. and Gustafson, E. K. and Hall, E. D. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Hodge, K. A. and Isi, M. and Kanner, J. B. and Kells, W. and Kondrashov, V. and Korth, W. Z. and Kozak, D. B. and Lazzarini, A. and Li, T. G. F. and Mageswaran, M. and Maros, E. and Martynov, D. V. and Marx, J. N. and McIntyre, G. and Meshkov, S. and Pedraza, M. and Perreca, A. and Price, L. R. and Quintero, E. A. and Reitze, D. H. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Sachdev, S. and Sanchez, E. 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T. and Zhang, Y. and Lasky, P. D. and Levin, Y. and Premachandra, S. S. and Thrane, E. and Lee, H. M. and Loriette, V. and Maksimovic, I. and Marchesoni, F. and McGuire, S. C. and Mikhailov, E. E. and Rew, H. and Romanov, G. and Zhang, M. and Mirshekari, S. and Sturani, R. and Nayak, R. K. and Samajdar, A. and O’Dell, J. and Ogin, G. H. and Oh, J. J. and Oh, S. H. and Son, E. J. and Penn, S. and Rosińska, D. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Trozzo, L. and Ugolini, D. and Venkateswara, K. and Willis, J. L. and Abbott, B. P. (2016) Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with advanced LIGO and advanced virgo. Living Reviews in Relativity, 19. pp. 1-39. ISSN 1433-8351

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    We present a possible observing scenario for the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We determine the expected sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron-star systems, which are considered the most promising for multi-messenger astronomy. The ability to localize the sources of the detected signals depends on the geographical distribution of the detectors and their relative sensitivity, and 90% credible regions can be as large as thousands of square degrees when only two sensitive detectors are operational. Determining the sky position of a significant fraction of detected signals to areas of 5 deg2 to 20 deg2 will require at least three detectors of sensitivity within a factor of ~ 2 of each other and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Should the third LIGO detector be relocated to India as expected, a significant fraction of gravitational-wave signals will be localized to a few square degrees by gravitational-wave observations alone.

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    Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abernathy, M. R., Adhikari, R. X., Anderson, S. B., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Barayoga, J. C., Barish, B. C., Berger, B. K., Billingsley, G., Blackburn, J. K., Bork, R., Brooks, A. F., Cahillane, C., Callister, T., Cepeda, C., Chakraborty, R., Chalermsongsak, T., Couvares, P., Coyne, D. C., Dergachev, V., Drever, R. W. P., Ehrens, P., Etzel, T., Gossan, S. E., Gushwa, K. E., Gustafson, E. K., Hall, E. D., Heptonstall, A. W., Hodge, K. A., Isi, M., Kanner, J. B., Kells, W., Kondrashov, V., Korth, W. Z., Kozak, D. B., Lazzarini, A., Li, T. G. F., Mageswaran, M., Maros, E., Martynov, D. V., Marx, J. N., McIntyre, G., Meshkov, S., Pedraza, M., Perreca, A., Price, L. R., Quintero, E. A., Reitze, D. H., Robertson, N. A., Rollins, J. G., Sachdev, S., Sanchez, E. J., Schmidt, P., Shao, Z., Singer, A., Smith, N. D., Smith, R. J. E., Taylor, R., Thirugnanasambandam, M. P., Torrie, C. I., Vajente, G., Vass, S., Wallace, L., Weinstein, A. J., Williams, R. D., Wipf, C. C., Yamamoto, H., Zhang, L., Zweizig, J., Abbott, T. D., Buchanan, C. C., Corbitt, T. R., Cripe, J., Giaime, J. A., González, G., Hardwick, T., Johnson, W. W., Kasprzack, M., Kokeyama, K., Macleod, D. M., Singh, R., Walker, M., Acernese, F., Barone, F., Romano, R., Acernese, F., Barone, F., Calloni, E., De Laurentis, M., De Rosa, R., Di Fiore, L., Garufi, F., Milano, L., Romano, R., Ackley, K., Amariutei, D. V., Ciani, G., Eichholz, J. M., Eikenberry, S. S., Fulda, P., Goetz, R., Hartman, M. T., Heintze, M. C., Klimenko, S., Martin, R. M., Mitselmakher, G., Mueller, C. L., Mueller, G., Mytidis, A., Necula, V., Ottens, R. S., Reitze, D. H., Tanner, D. B., Whiting, B. F., Adams, C., Aston, S. M., Betzwieser, J., Birch, J., Cowart, M. J., DeRosa, R., Doravari, S., Effler, A., Evans, T. M., Frolov, V. V., Fyffe, M., Giaime, J. A., Giardina, K. D., Hanson, J., Heintze, M. C., Holt, K., Huynh-Dinh, T., Katzman, W., Kinzel, D. L., Lormand, M., McCormick, S., Mullavey, A., Nolting, D., Oram, R. J., Overmier, H., O’Reilly, B., Parker, W., Pele, A., Romie, J. H., Sellers, D., Stuver, A. L., Thomas, M., Thorne, K. A., Traylor, G., Welborn, T., Wu, G., Adams, T., Bonnand, R., Buskulic, D., Ducrot, M., Germain, V., Gouaty, R., Letendre, N., Marion, F., Masserot, A., Mours, B., Rolland, L., Verkindt, D., Was, M., Yvert, M., Addesso, P., DeSalvo, R., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., Principe, M., Principe, M., Adya, V. B., Affeldt, C., Allen, B., Aulbert, C., Baune, C., Bergmann, G., Bisht, A., Bock, O., Bogan, C., Brinkmann, M., Capano, C. D., Dal Canton, T., Danzmann, K., Denker, T., Dent, T., Di Palma, I., Drago, M., Eggenstein, H. B., Fehrmann, H., Fricke, T. T., Grote, H., Hanke, M. M., Heurs, M., Indik, N., Kawazoe, F., Keitel, D., Khalaidovski, A., Koehlenbeck, S. M., Kringel, V., Krishnan, B., Kuehn, G., Leong, J. R., Lough, J. D., Lundgren, A. P., Lück, H., Machenschalk, B., Mazzolo, G., Meadors, G. D., Mendoza-Gandara, D., Ming, J., Mossavi, K., Nielsen, A. B., Nitz, A., Oppermann, P., Papa, M. A., Post, A., Rüdiger, A., Salemi, F., Schilling†, R., Schmidt, J., Schreiber, E., Schuette, D., Shaltev, M., Simakov, D., Singh, A., Steinke, M., Steinmeyer, D., Tarabrin, S. P., Theeg, T., Weinert, M., Westphal, T., Wette, K., Weßels, P., Whelan, J. T., Willke, B., Wimmer, M. H., Winkler, W., Wittel, H., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Bertolini, A., Bloemen, S., Bulten, H. J., Ghosh, S., Jonker, R. J. G., Koley, S., Meidam, J., Nelemans, G., Nissanke, S., Setyawati, Y., Shah, S., van Bakel, N., van Beuzekom, M., van den Brand, J. F. J., van den Broeck, C., van der Schaaf, L., van der Sluys, M. V., van Heijningen, J. V., Aggarwal, N., Barsotti, L., Biscans, S., Bodiya, T. P., Brown, N. M., Buikema, A., Donovan, F., Essick, R. C., Evans, M., Fritschel, P., Gras, S., Isogai, T., Katsavounidis, E., Kontos, A., Libson, A., Lynch, R., MacInnis, M., Mason, K., Matichard, F., Mavalvala, N., Miller, J., Mittleman, R., Mohapatra, S. R. P., Oelker, E., Shoemaker, D. H., Tse, M., Vaulin, R., Vitale, S., Weiss, R., Yam, W., Yu, H., Zhang, F., Zucker, M. E., Aguiar, O. D., Constancio, M., Costa, C. A., Ferreira, E. C., Silva, A. D., Ain, A., Bose, S., Dhurandhar, S., Gaonkar, S. G., Gupta, A., Mitra, S., Prasad, J., Souradeep, T., Ajith, P., Ghosh, A., Iyer, B. R., Mishra, C., Mukherjee, Arunava, Allen, B., Anderson, W. G., Brady, P. R., Brockill, P., Caudill, S., Chamberlin, S. J., Creighton, J. D. E., Downes, T. P., Manske, M., Mercer, R. A., Mukherjee, D., Ochsner, E., Pankow, C., Papa, M. A., Qi, H., Sadeghian, L., Sheperd, A., Siemens, X., Stephens, B. C., Urban, A. L., Wade, L. E., Wade, M., Walsh, S., Allen, B., Aufmuth, P., Bisht, A., Danzmann, K., Denker, T., Heurs, M., Kaufer, S., Krueger, C., Lough, J. 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C., Arnaud, N., Bizouard, M. A., Brisson, V., Casanueva Diaz, J., Cavalier, F., Davier, M., Franco, S., Hello, P., Huet, D., Kasprzack, M., Leroy, N., Robinet, F., Arun, K. G., Kalaghatgi, C. V., Ashton, G., Jones, D. I., Ast, M., Kleybolte, L., Korobko, M., Pal-Singh, A., Schnabel, R., Schönbeck, A., Astone, P., Colla, A., Conte, A., Di Giovanni, M., Frasca, S., Leaci, P., Majorana, E., Mangano, V., Mezzani, F., Naticchioni, L., Palomba, C., Piccinni, O., Puppo, P., Rapagnani, P., Ricci, F., Babak, S., Behnke, B., Bohe, A., Buonanno, A., Di Palma, I., Grunewald, S., Harry, I. W., Leaci, P., Meadors, G. D., Ming, J., Papa, M. A., Privitera, S., Raymond, V., Singh, A., Taracchini, A., Baker, P. T., Cornish, N., Millhouse, M., Baldaccini, F., Gammaitoni, L., Travasso, F., Vocca, H., Baldaccini, F., Gammaitoni, L., Marchesoni, F., Punturo, M., Travasso, F., Vocca, H., Ballardin, G., Bavigadda, V., Bitossi, M., Bozzi, A., Carbognani, F., Cavalieri, R., Chiummo, A., Cortese, S., Cuoco, E., Dattilo, V., Day, R., Ferrini, F., Fiori, I., Genin, E., Gosselin, M., Hemming, G., Kasprzack, M., Mantovani, M., Mohan, M., Nocera, F., Paoletti, F., Paoli, A., Pasqualetti, A., Pillant, G., Prijatelj, M., Ruggi, P., Sentenac, D., Swinkels, B. L., Ballmer, S. W., Bhagwat, S., Biwer, C., Brown, D. A., Fair, H., Fisher, R. P., Kelley, D. B., Lackey, B. D., Lenon, A., Lord, J. E., Magaña-Sandoval, F., Massinger, T. J., Nuttall, L. K., Pekowsky, L., Saulson, P. R., Usman, S. A., Vander-Hyde, D. C., Vo, T., Barclay, S. E., Barr, B., Bell, A. S., Bell, C. J., Chan, M., Craig, K., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Danilishin, S. L., Davies, G. S., Douglas, R., Fletcher, M., Glaefke, A., Gordon, N. A., Graef, C., Grant, A., Hammond, G., Hart, M. J., Haughian, K., Hendry, M., Heng, I. S., Hennig, J., Hild, S., Hough, J., Houston, E. A., Hu, Y. M., Huttner, S. H., Isa, H. N., Jones, R., Leavey, S., Lee, K., Logue, J., Mangano, V., Martin, I. W., Masso-Reid, M., Messenger, C., Murray, P. G., Newton, G., Pascucci, D., Pearlstone, B. L., Phelps, M., Pitkin, M., Powell, J., Robertson, N. A., Robie, R., Rowan, S., Scott, J., Sorazu, B., Steinlechner, J., Steinlechner, S., Strain, K. A., van Veggel, A. A., Woan, G., Wright, J. L., Barker, D., Bartlett, J., Batch, J. C., Bergman, J., Blair, R. M., Clara, F., Cook, D., Driggers, J. C., Dwyer, S. E., Gray, C., Hanks, J., Ingram, D. R., Izumi, K., Kawabe, K., Kijbunchoo, N., King, P. J., Kissel, J. S., Landry, M., Levine, B. M., McCarthy, R., Mendell, G., Merilh, E., Moraru, D., Moreno, G., Oberling, J., Raab, F. J., Radkins, H., Reed, C. M., Ryan, K., Sadecki, T., Sandberg, V., Savage, R. L., Sevigny, A., Sigg, D., Thomas, P., Vorvick, C., Warner, J., Weaver, B., Worden, J., Barsuglia, M., Buy, C., Capocasa, E., Chassande-Mottin, E., Gatto, A., Lebigot, E., Tacca, M., Barta, D., Debreczeni, G., Vasúth, M., Bartos, I., Countryman, S. T., Factourovich, M., Matone, L., Murphy, D. J., Márka, S., Márka, Z., Pereira, R., Staley, A., Bassiri, R., Byer, R. L., DeBra, D., Fejer, M. M., Kim, N., Lantz, B., MacDonald, T., Markosyan, A. S., Paris, H. R., Patrick, Z., Shapiro, B., Bazzan, M., Vardaro, M., Bazzan, M., Conti, L., Lazzaro, C., Vardaro, M., Vedovato, G., Zangrando, L., Zendri, J. P., Bejger, M., Rosińska, D., Belczynski, C., Bulik, T., Kowalska, I., Berry, C. P L, Bond, C., Brown, D. D., Del Pozzo, W., Farr, W. M., Freise, A., Green, A. C., Haster, C. J., Mandel, I., Miao, H., Middleton, H., Mow-Lowry, C. M., Thomas, E. G., Töyrä, D., Vecchio, A., Veitch, J., Vinciguerra, S., Vousden, W. D., Wang, H., Wang, M., Bersanetti, D., Neri, M., Bersanetti, D., Chincarini, A., Farinon, S., Gemme, G., Neri, M., Rei, L., Sorrentino, F., Bhandare, R., Dave, I., George, J., Pai, S. A., Pant, B. C., Raja, S., Bilenko, I. A., Braginsky, V. B., Gorodetsky, M. L., Khalili, F. Y., Mitrofanov, V. P., Prokhorov, L., Strigin, S., Vyatchanin, S. P., Birney, R., Reid, S., Vine, D. J., Blair, C. D., Blair, D., Chu, Q., Chung, S., Coward, D. M., Fang, Q., Howell, E. J., Ju, L., Kaur, T., Ma, Y., Qin, J., Wang, Y., Wen, L., Zhao, C., Zhu, X. J., Bloemen, S., Ghosh, S., Groot, P., Nelemans, G., Nissanke, S., Setyawati, Y., Shah, S., van der Sluys, M. V., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Brillet, A., Cleva, F., Coulon, J. P., Dereli, H., Fournier, J. D., Gendre, B., Heitmann, H., Kéfélian, F., Man, N., Martellini, L., Meacher, D., Merzougui, M., Pichot, M., Regimbau, T., Siellez, K., Turconi, M., Vinet, J. Y., Wei, L. W., Bojtos, P., Frei, Z., Gondan, L., Raffai, P., Bondu, F., Bose, S., Hall, B. 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