European Union symbols under threat : identity considerations

Cram, Laura and Patrikios, Stratos; Kaina, Viktoria and Karolewski, Ireneusz Pawel and Kuhn, Sebastian, eds. (2015) European Union symbols under threat : identity considerations. In: European Identity Revisited. Critical European Studies . Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-88636-0

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This chapter discusses how experimental research using implicit visual cues can offer unique insights into the nature and consequences of territorial attachments in multi-level polities such as the European Union; how exposure to threat might impact on attitudes to the European Union; and how recent empirical efforts to illustrate the interaction of these two effects – exposure to visual stimuli and threat – point to a new research direction for students of European identity. The conclusion proposes empirical applications that extend recent research.


Cram, Laura and Patrikios, Stratos ORCID logoORCID:; Kaina, Viktoria, Karolewski, Ireneusz Pawel and Kuhn, Sebastian