The parasitic worm product ES-62 targets myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent effector mechanisms to suppress antinuclear antibody production and proteinuria in MRL/lpr mice

Rodgers, David T. and McGrath, Mairi A. and Pineda, Miguel A. and Al-Riyami, Lamyaa and Rzepecka, Justyna and Lumb, Felicity and Harnett, William and Harnett, Margaret M. (2015) The parasitic worm product ES-62 targets myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent effector mechanisms to suppress antinuclear antibody production and proteinuria in MRL/lpr mice. Arthritis and Rheumatology, 67 (4). pp. 1023-1035. ISSN 2326-5205

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    Abstract

    Objective -- The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic helminths (worms) protect against the development of autoimmune disease via a serendipitous side effect of worm-derived immunomodulators that concomitantly promote parasite survival and limit host pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ES-62, a phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, protects against kidney damage in an MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods -- MRL/lpr mice progressively produce high levels of autoantibodies, and the resultant deposition of immune complexes drives kidney pathology. The effects of ES-62 on disease progression were assessed by measurement of proteinuria, assessment of kidney histology, determination of antinuclear antibody (ANA) production and cytokine levels, and flow cytometric analysis of relevant cellular populations. Results -- ES-62 restored the disrupted balance between effector and regulatory B cells in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting plasmablast differentiation, with a consequent reduction in ANA production and deposition of immune complexes and C3a in the kidneys. Moreover, by reducing interleukin-22 production, ES-62 may desensitize downstream effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Highlighting the therapeutic importance of resetting B cell responses, adoptive transfer of purified splenic B cells from ES-62-treated MRL/lpr mice mimicked the protection afforded by the helminth product. Mechanistically, this reflects down-regulation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression by B cells and also kidney cells, resulting in inhibition of pathogenic cross-talk among Toll-like receptor-, C3a-, and immune complex-mediated effector mechanisms. Conclusion -- This study provides the first demonstration of protection against kidney pathology by a parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator in a model of SLE and suggests therapeutic potential for drugs based on the mechanism of action of ES-62.

    ORCID iDs

    Rodgers, David T., McGrath, Mairi A., Pineda, Miguel A., Al-Riyami, Lamyaa, Rzepecka, Justyna, Lumb, Felicity ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9742-5125, Harnett, William ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9545-9401 and Harnett, Margaret M.;