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Place-difference-value patterns : a generalization of generalized permutation and word patterns

Kitaev, Sergey and Remmel, Jeffrey (2010) Place-difference-value patterns : a generalization of generalized permutation and word patterns. Integers: Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory, 10. pp. 129-154. ISSN 1553-1732

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Motivated by the study of Mahonian statistics, in 2000, Babson and Steingr´ımsson introduced the notion of a “generalized permutation pattern” (GP) which generalizes the concept of “classical” permutation pattern introduced by Knuth in 1969. The invention of GPs led to a large number of publications related to properties of these patterns in permutations and words. Since the work of Babson and Steingr´ımsson, several further generalizations of permutation patterns have appeared in the literature, each bringing a new set of permutation or word pattern problems and often new connections with other combinatorial objects and disciplines. For example, Bousquet-M´elou et al. introduced a new type of permutation pattern that allowed them to relate permutation patterns theory to the theory of partially ordered sets. In this paper we introduce yet another, more general definition of a pattern, called place-difference-value patterns (PDVP) that covers all of the most common definitions of permutation and/or word patterns that have occurred in the literature. PDVPs provide many new ways to develop the theory of patterns in permutations and words. We shall give several examples of PDVPs in both permutations and words that cannot be described in terms of any other pattern conditions that have been introduced previously. Finally, we discuss several bijective questions linking our patterns to other combinatorial objects.