Efficient invariant-manifold, low-thrust planar trajectories to the Moon

Mingotti, Giorgio and Topputo, Francesco and Bernelli-Zazzara, Franco (2012) Efficient invariant-manifold, low-thrust planar trajectories to the Moon. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 17 (2). pp. 817-831. ISSN 1007-5704

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Two-impulse trajectories as well as mixed invariant-manifold, low-thrust efficient transfers to the Moon are discussed. Exterior trajectories executing ballistic lunar capture are formalized through the definition of special attainable sets. The coupled restricted three-body problems approximation is used to design appropriate first guesses for the subsequent optimization. The introduction of the Moon-perturbed Sun–Earth restricted four-body problem allows us to formalize the idea of ballistic escape from the Earth, and to take explicitly advantage of lunar fly-by. Accurate first guess solutions are optimized, through a direct method approach and multiple shooting technique.