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Rarefied gas effects on the aerodynamics of high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft in orbit

White, Craig and Colombo, Camilla and Scanlon, Thomas and McInnes, Colin and Reese, Jason (2013) Rarefied gas effects on the aerodynamics of high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft in orbit. Advances in Space Research, 51 (11). pp. 2112-2124. ISSN 0273-1177

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Abstract

The aerodynamic situation of a satellite-on-a-chip operating in low Earth orbit bears some resemblance to a classical Crookes radiometer. The large area-to-mass ratio characteristic of a SpaceChip means that very small surface-dependent forces produce non-negligible accelerations that can significantly alter its orbit. When the temperature of a SpaceChip changes, the drag force can be changed: if the temperature increases, the drag increases (and vice versa). Analytical expressions available in the literature that describe the change in drag coefficient with orbit altitude and SpaceChip temperature compare well with our direct simulation Monte Carlo results presented here. It is demonstrated that modifying the temperature of a SpaceChip could be used for relative orbit control of individual SpaceChips in a swarm, with a maximum change in position per orbit of 50 m being achievable at 600 km altitude.