Entangled optical vortex links

Romero, J. and Leach, J. and Jack, B. and Dennis, M. R. and Franke-Arnold, S. and Barnett, S. M. and Padgett, M. J. (2011) Entangled optical vortex links. Physical Review Letters, 106 (10). 100407. ISSN 0031-9007

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Abstract

Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity which percolate through all optical fields. We report the entanglement of linked optical vortex loops in the light produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. As measured by using a Bell inequality, this entanglement between topological features extends over macroscopic and finite volumes. The entanglement of photons in complex three-dimensional topological states suggests the possibility of entanglement of similar features in other quantum systems describable by complex scalar functions, such as superconductors, superfluids, and Bose-Einstein condensates.