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Quantum state discrimination

Barnett, Stephen M. and Croke, Sarah (2009) Quantum state discrimination. Advances in Optics and Photonics, 1 (2). pp. 238-278.

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It is a fundamental consequence of the superposition principle for quantum states that there must exist nonorthogonal states, that is, states that, although different, have a nonzero overlap. This finite overlap means that there is no way of determining with certainty in which of two such states a given physical system has been prepared. We review the various strategies that have been devised to discriminate optimally between nonorthogonal states and some of the optical experiments that have been performed to realize these.