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The effect of anticoagulants on the distribution of chromium (VI) in blood fractions

Afolaranmi, G.A. and Tettey, J.N.A. and Murray, H. and Meek, R.M.D. and Grant, M.H. (2007) The effect of anticoagulants on the distribution of chromium (VI) in blood fractions. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 59 (S1). A4. ISSN 0022-3573

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Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the influence of anticoagulants on the in vitro distribution pattern of hexavalent chromium in blood fractions. Many metallic implants used in orthopaedics are made of stainless steel or cobalt-chromium alloys which contain 18-30% chromium. Hexavalent chromium has been shown to be the predominant form of chromium released following in vivo and in vitro corrosion of these metal implants (Merritt & Brown 1995). Blood chromium levels may be elevated 50-250 times in patients with metal hip implants (Lhotka et al 2003). At physiological pH, hexavalent chromium exists predominantly as the chromate anion and as such can enter cells via non-specific anion channels. The anionic hexavalent chromium diffuses readily through the red blood cell (RBC) membrane and is bound by the haemoglobin probably after its rapid reduction to the cationic trivalent state within the RBC (Gray & Sterling 1950).