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Anatomical flow phantoms of the nonplanar carotid bifurcation, Part II: experimental validation with Doppler ultrasound

Meagher, S. and Poepping, T. and Ramnarine, K. and Black, R.A. and Hoskins, P.R. (2007) Anatomical flow phantoms of the nonplanar carotid bifurcation, Part II: experimental validation with Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 33 (2). pp. 303-310. ISSN 0301-5629

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Abstract

A nonplanar wall-less anatomical flow phantom of a healthy human carotid artery is described, the construction of which is based on a lost-core technique described in the companion paper (Part I) by Watts et al. (2006). The core was made by rapid prototyping of an idealized three-dimensional computer model of the carotid artery. Flow phantoms were built using these idealized non planar carotid artery bifurcations. Physiologically realistic flow waveforms were produced with resistance index values of 0.75, 0.72 and 0.63 in the common, external and internal carotid artery branches, respectively. Distension of the common carotid using M-mode imaging was found to be at 10% of diameter. Although differences in vessel diameter between the phantom and that of the original computer model were statistically significant (p < 0.05), there was no difference (p > 0.05) in measurements made on the lost-cores and those obtained by B-mode ultrasound on the resulting flow phantoms. In conclusion, it was possible to reliably reproduce geometrically similar anatomical flow phantoms that are capable of producing realistic physiological flow patterns and distensions.