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Peak-ratio analysis method for enhancement of LOM protection using M class PMUs

Ding, Feng and Booth, Campbell D. and Roscoe, Andrew J. (2016) Peak-ratio analysis method for enhancement of LOM protection using M class PMUs. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 7 (1). pp. 291-299. ISSN 1949-3053

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Abstract

A novel technique for loss of mains (LOM) detection, using Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data, is described in this paper. The technique, known as the Peak Ratio Analysis Method (PRAM), improves both sensitivity and stability of LOM protection when compared to prevailing techniques. The technique is based on a Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) measurement from M-class PMUs, but the key novelty of the method lies in the fact that it employs a new “peak-ratio” analysis of the measured ROCOF waveform during any frequency disturbance to determine whether the potentially-islanded element of the network is grid connected or not. The proposed technique is described and several examples of its operation are compared with three competing LOM protection methods that have all been widely used by industry and/or reported in the literature: standard ROCOF, Phase Offset Relay (POR) and Phase Angle Difference (PAD) methods. It is shown that the PRAM technique exhibits comparable performance to the others, and in many cases improves upon their abilities, in particular for systems where the inertia of the main power system is reduced, which may arise in future systems with increased penetrations of renewable generation and HVDC infeeds