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Thermal lensing, thermal management and transverse mode control in microchip VECSELs

Kemp, A. and MacLean, A.J. and Hastie, J.E. and Smith, S.A. and Hopkins, J.M. and Calvez, S. and Valentine, G.J. and Dawson, M.D. and Burns, D. (2006) Thermal lensing, thermal management and transverse mode control in microchip VECSELs. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 83. pp. 189-194. ISSN 0946-2171

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Abstract

Finite-element analysis is used to explore the practicalities and power-scaling potential of quasi-monolithic microchip vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: thermal lensing and its implications for transverse mode control are emphasised. A comparison is made between the use of sapphire and diamond heat spreaders. The experimental characterisation of an InGaAs/sapphire microchip VECSEL is presented as an exemplar system and the factors affecting slope efficiency, threshold and output power roll-over are examined. By comparing experimental measurements with the finite-element model, the key role of thermal lensing in transverse mode control is demonstrated.