Picture of athlete cycling

Open Access research with a real impact on health...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Physical Activity for Health Group based within the School of Psychological Sciences & Health. Research here seeks to better understand how and why physical activity improves health, gain a better understanding of the amount, intensity, and type of physical activity needed for health benefits, and evaluate the effect of interventions to promote physical activity.

Explore open research content by Physical Activity for Health...

The measurement of collateral knee laxity using non-invasive computer-assisted technology

Clarke, JV and Deakin, AH and Nicol, AC and Picard, F (2011) The measurement of collateral knee laxity using non-invasive computer-assisted technology. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, British Volume, 93-B (Supp I). p. 388. ISSN 0301-620X

Full text not available in this repository. Request a copy from the Strathclyde author


Computer-assisted technology has provided surgeons with intra-operative quantitative measurement tools that have led to the development of soft-tissue balancing algorithms based on surgeon-applied varus-valgus stress. Unfortunately these forces tend not to be standardised and the resultant algorithms may at best be surgeon-specific. Furthermore, these techniques are only available intra-operatively and rely on the rigid fixation of trackers to bone. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive computer-assisted measurement technique and assess the variation in collateral knee laxity measurements between different clinicians.An image-free navigation system was adapted for non-invasive use by developing external mountings for active infrared trackers. A leg model with rigid tracker mountings was designed and manufactured for comparison. Multiple kinematic registrations of alignment were made for both the model and the right leg of a volunteer to quantify the soft tissue artefacts. Repeatability of the system was assessed by performing two registration processes on eight volunteers. Collateral knee laxity was assessed on a single volunteer by 16 participants of varying experience each applying a maximum varus and valgus knee stress. Two surgeons performed repeated examinations to assess intra-observer variation.For repeated registrations of alignment, the SD of the non-invasive mounting (0.8°) was only a third higher than the leg model (0.6°) and the actual range was only 1° larger. The repeated alignment measurements on the volunteers showed a high level of agreement with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93. Varus-valgus stress values showed poor inter-observer variation with a wide range of angles for both varus (1° to 7°) and valgus stress (0.5° to 5°). A Mann-Whitney test between the two sets of repeated tests showed that both varus stress and overall laxity were significantly different (p