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Analysis of wide-area availability of wind generators during storm events

MacDonald, Hamish and Hawker, Graeme and Bell, Keith (2014) Analysis of wide-area availability of wind generators during storm events. In: 2014 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems. IEEE, pp. 1-6. ISBN 9781479935611

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During high wind speed shutdown (HWSS) events, the power outputs of wind power plants may be subject to high ramp rates, causing issues for the System Operator (SO) in predicting total wind output, allocating adequate reserve levels and minimising balancing costs. As the timing of these events is difficult to predict, it is proposed that individual turbines may be used as probabilistic early warning indicators of HWSS events across sites, and by extension to a wide geographical area. The shut-down history of two separate wind farms across Scotland is analysed to determine the likelihood and impact of such events. It is shown that in most cases, HWSS does not result in the full loss of availability. Factors such as turbine elevation and mean wind exposure are key indicators of the order of shut-down across a site. The suggestion that sites could be used as early warning indicators for the pattern of HWSS across a transmission zone is difficult to characterise and for the two wind farms studied, prediction was not consistent.