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Ceramic-epoxy composite transducers for noncontacting ultrasonic applications

Hayward, Gordon and Gachagan, Anthony and Hamilton, R. and Hutchins, D.A. and Wright, WMD (1992) Ceramic-epoxy composite transducers for noncontacting ultrasonic applications. In: New Developments in Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Systems. Proceedings of the Society Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 1733 . SPIE, pp. 49-56. ISBN 0819409065

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This work describes the evaluation of various 1 - 3 connectivity transducer configurations, comprising a matrix of ceramic rods embedded in epoxy, for operation into air over the frequency range 100 kHz - 2 MHz. A dual strategy, involving simulation design and supported by experimental verification, is used to determine the main factors which influence through air operation of such structures. Specifically, finite element analysis is employed to determine the influence of ceramic rod shape and distribution, in conjunction with the characteristics of the epoxy filler materials, on transducer performance. A one dimensional linear systems model is then utilized for assessment of transducer behavior when configured as an actual probe assembly and connected to practical electrical and mechanical load environments. Some experimental examples, relevant to non-destructive evaluation, are presented, including through transmission scanning of carbon-fiber composite materials and remote detection of laser generated ultrasound.