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Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 activates plasminogen by interaction with tissue plasminogen activator, independently of its ability to bind to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, insulin-like growth factor-I, or heparin

Sorrell, A.M. and Shand, J.H. and Tonner, E. and Gamberoni, M. and Accorsi, P.A. and Beattie, J. and Allan, G.J. and Flint, D.J. (2006) Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 activates plasminogen by interaction with tissue plasminogen activator, independently of its ability to bind to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, insulin-like growth factor-I, or heparin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281 (16). pp. 10883-10889. ISSN 0021-9258

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Abstract

Transgenic mice expressing IGFBP-5 in the mammary gland exhibit increased cell death and plasmin generation. Because IGFBP-5 has been reported to bind to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), we determined the effects of this interaction in HC11 cells. PAI-1 prevented plasmin generation from plasminogen and inhibited cleavage of focal adhesions, expression of caspase 3, and cell death. IGFBP-5 could in turn prevent the effects of PAI-1. IGFBP-5 mutants with reduced affinity for IGF-I (N-term) or deficient in heparin binding (HEP- and C-term E and F) were also effective. This was surprising because IGFBP-5 reportedly interacts with PAI-1 via its heparin-binding domain. Biosensor analysis confirmed that, although wild-type IGFBP-5 and N-term both bound to PAI-1, the C-term E had greatly decreased interaction with PAI-1. This suggests that IGFBP-5 does not antagonize the actions of PAI-1 by a direct molecular interaction. In a cell-free system, using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to activate plasminogen, PAI-1 inhibited plasmin generation induced by both activators, whereas IGFBP-5 prevented the effects of PAI-1 on tPA but not uPA. Furthermore, we noted that IGFBP-5 activated plasminogen to a greater extent than could be explained solely by inhibition of PAI-1, suggesting that IGFBP-5 could directly activate tPA. Indeed, IGFBP-5 and the C-term E and F were all able to enhance the activity of tPA but not uPA. These data demonstrate that IGFBP-5 can enhance the activity of tPA and that this can result in cell death induced by cleavage of focal adhesions. Thus IGFBP-5 can induce cell death by both sequestering IGF-I and enhancing plasmin generation.