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Stroke penumbra defined by an MRI-based oxygen challenge technique : 1. Validation using [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

Robertson, Craig A and McCabe, Christopher and Gallagher, Lindsay and Lopez-Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario and Holmes, William M and Condon, Barrie and Muir, Keith W and Santosh, Celestine and Macrae, I Mhairi (2011) Stroke penumbra defined by an MRI-based oxygen challenge technique : 1. Validation using [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 31 (8). pp. 1778-1787. ISSN 0271-678X

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Abstract

Accurate identification of ischemic penumbra will improve stroke patient selection for reperfusion therapies and clinical trials. Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have limitations and lack validation. Oxygen challenge T(2)(*) MRI (T(2)(*) OC) uses oxygen as a biotracer to detect tissue metabolism, with penumbra displaying the greatest T(2)(*) signal change during OC. [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography was combined with T(2)(*) OC to determine metabolic status of T(2)(*)-defined penumbra. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6). Ischemic injury and perfusion deficit were determined by diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. At 147 ± 32 minutes after stroke, T(2)(*) signal change was measured during a 5-minute 100% OC, immediately followed by 125 μCi/kg 2-DG, intravenously. Magnetic resonance images were coregistered with the corresponding autoradiograms. Regions of interest were located within ischemic core, T(2)(*)-defined penumbra, equivalent contralateral structures, and a region of hyperglycolysis. A T(2)(*) signal increase of 9.22% ± 3.9% (mean ± s.d.) was recorded in presumed penumbra, which displayed local cerebral glucose utilization values equivalent to contralateral cortex. T(2)(*) signal change was negligible in ischemic core, 3.2% ± 0.78% in contralateral regions, and 1.41% ± 0.62% in hyperglycolytic tissue, located outside OC-defined penumbra and within the diffusion abnormality. The results support the utility of OC-MRI to detect viable penumbral tissue following stroke.