Picture of athlete cycling

Open Access research with a real impact on health...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Physical Activity for Health Group based within the School of Psychological Sciences & Health. Research here seeks to better understand how and why physical activity improves health, gain a better understanding of the amount, intensity, and type of physical activity needed for health benefits, and evaluate the effect of interventions to promote physical activity.

Explore open research content by Physical Activity for Health...

Parallelogram polyominoes, the sandpile model on a complete bipartite graph, and a q,t-Narayana polynomial

Dukes, Mark and Le Borgne, Yvan (2013) Parallelogram polyominoes, the sandpile model on a complete bipartite graph, and a q,t-Narayana polynomial. Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A, 120 (4). pp. 816-842. ISSN 0097-3165

Full text not available in this repository. Request a copy from the Strathclyde author

Abstract

We classify recurrent configurations of the sandpile model on the complete bipartite graph K_{m,n} in which one designated vertex is a sink. We present a bijection from these recurrent configurations to decorated parallelogram polyominoes whose bounding box is a m*n rectangle. Several special types of recurrent configurations and their properties via this bijection are examined. For example, recurrent configurations whose sum of heights is minimal are shown to correspond to polyominoes of least area. Two other classes of recurrent configurations are shown to be related to bicomposition matrices, a matrix analogue of set partitions, and (2+2)-free partially ordered sets. A canonical toppling process for recurrent configurations gives rise to a path within the associated parallelogram polyominoes. This path bounces off the external edges of the polyomino, and is reminiscent of Haglund's well-known bounce statistic for Dyck paths. We define a collection of polynomials that we call q,t-Narayana polynomials, defined to be the generating function of the bistatistic (area,parabounce) on the set of parallelogram polyominoes, akin to the (area,hagbounce) bistatistic defined on Dyck paths in Haglund (2003). In doing so, we have extended a bistatistic of Egge, Haglund, Kremer and Killpatrick (2003) to the set of parallelogram polyominoes. This is one answer to their question concerning extensions to other combinatorial objects. We conjecture the q,t-Narayana polynomials to be symmetric and prove this conjecture for numerous special cases. We also show a relationship between Haglund's (area,hagbounce) statistic on Dyck paths, and our bistatistic (area,parabounce) on a sub-collection of those parallelogram polyominoes living in a (n+1)*n rectangle