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An improved lead-acid battery pack model for use in power simulations of electric vehicles

Carter, R. and Cruden, A. and Hall, P. J. and Zaher, A. S. (2012) An improved lead-acid battery pack model for use in power simulations of electric vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 27 (1). pp. 21-28. ISSN 0885-8969

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Abstract

A new model for a lead-acid battery pack is proposed for use in power simulations of electric vehicles. A linear approximation using a constant voltage drop has been used to model the charge-transfer resistance of the battery pack, and an exponential voltage-recovery equation has been used to model the transient capacitance effects following a period of discharge. The new model is easy to implement with simple calculations and easily acquired parameters, combining speed of implementation with accuracy. The new model was found to have a peak error of 3.1% in drive cycle tests, thus comparing favorably to existing models of similar complexity. An initial assessment of the model's suitability for use with a lithium-ion battery pack was also performed, finding a peak error of 5%.