Abdulhadi, Ibrahim Faiek and Li, Xinyao and Coffele, Federico and Crolla, Paul and Dysko, Adam and Booth, Campbell and Burt, Graeme and Schafer, Nils (2011) International White Book on DER Protection : Review and Testing Procedures. DERlab e.V. – European Distributed Energy Resources Laboratories. ISBN 978-3-943517-02-6
This white book provides an insight into the issues surrounding the impact of increasing levels of DER on the generator and network protection and the resulting necessary improvements in protection testing practices. Particular focus is placed on ever increasing inverter-interfaced DER installations and the challenges of utility network integration. This white book should also serve as a starting point for specifying DER protection testing requirements and procedures. A comprehensive review of international DER protection practices, standards and recommendations is presented. This is accompanied by the identiﬁ cation of the main performance challenges related to these protection schemes under varied network operational conditions and the nature of DER generator and interface technologies. Emphasis is placed on the importance of dynamic testing that can only be delivered through laboratory-based platforms such as real-time simulators, integrated substation automation infrastructure and ﬂ exible, inverter-equipped testing microgrids. To this end, the combination of ﬂ exible network operation and new DER technologies underlines the importance of utilising the laboratory testing facilities available within the DERlab Network of Excellence. This not only informs the shaping of new protection testing and network integration practices by end users but also enables the process of de-risking new DER protection technologies. In order to support the issues discussed in the white paper, a comparative case study between UK and German DER protection and scheme testing practices is presented. This also highlights the level of complexity associated with standardisation and approval mechanisms adopted by different countries.
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