Picture of virus under microscope

Research under the microscope...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs.

Strathprints serves world leading Open Access research by the University of Strathclyde, including research by the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), where research centres such as the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC), the Cancer Research UK Formulation Unit, SeaBioTech and the Centre for Biophotonics are based.

Explore SIPBS research

Comparative biotransformation of morphine, codeine and pholcodine in rat hepatocytes: identification of a novel metabolite of pholcodine

Jairaj, M. and Watson, D.G. and Grant, M.H. and Skellern, G.G. (2002) Comparative biotransformation of morphine, codeine and pholcodine in rat hepatocytes: identification of a novel metabolite of pholcodine. Xenobiotica, 32 (12). pp. 979-986. ISSN 0049-8254

Full text not available in this repository. (Request a copy from the Strathclyde author)

Abstract

1. Pholcodine (3-morpholinoethylmorphine), a semi-synthetic alkaloid, is widely used as an antitussive agent. 2. Norpholcodine [7,8-didehydro-4,5alpha-epoxy-3-(2-morpholinoethoxy)morphinan-6alpha-ol] (NP) and pholcodine-N-oxide [1(9a)-dehydro-(4aR,5S,7aR,9cS,12S)-4a,5,7a,8,9,9a-hexahydro-5-hydroxy-12-methyl-3-morpholinoethoxy-1H-8,9,c-(iminoethano)phenanthro[4,5-bcd] furan-12-oxide] (PNOX) were identified in incubations of pholcodine with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes by liquid chromatography/electrospray-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). 3. Synthesized NP and PNOX were characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 4. N-oxidation was the major metabolic pathway for pholcodine, producing a previously unreported metabolite. 5. The metabolism of morphine and codeine was also determined using freshly isolated hepatocytes. 6. For morphine, 3-glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway, whilst for codeine it was dealkylation (O- and N-). 7. Neither morphine nor its metabolites were metabolites of pholcodine. 8. This observation supports the hypothesis that the absence of analgesic activity with pholcodine may be due to less O-dealkylation in vivo. 9. Together with the slow biotransformation of pholcodine (k(met) = 0.021 microM min(-1)) in comparison with morphine (k(met) = 0.057 microM min(-1)) and codeine (k(met) = 0.112 microM min(-1)), the results obtained were consistent with its low addiction potential and suggest that its antitussive efficacy is mediated by the parent drug or one of its metabolites other than morphine.